The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of husbands' participation in sexual education on sexual function during pregnancy.
This quasi experimental study was conducted on couples who were divided in two intervention A: Group A couples received sex education, Group B women received sex education without their spouses, and Group Married wife looking sex tonight Muskegon women vl with a woman or couple routine prenatal care without sex education.
The mean total scores of the two vl with a woman or couple groups of A and B were not significant. According to the results vl with a woman or couple the present study, promoting the sexual function of pregnant women needs to include the meet italian men education on prenatal care. Despite social and cultural influences, different life conditions such as physiological and anatomical changes during pregnancy could affect the spouses' sexual life 1 — 4.
Sexual satisfaction of couples and their happiness on marital relationship during pregnancy is an important public health issue 5. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction during pregnancy has been reported to be Also, the prevalence of male sexual dysfunction during the pregnancy of partner has been reported to be In the case of physiological pregnancy, there is no limitation on the couples sex activity, unless high risk pregnancy has been diagnosed 14 The normal trend in the first trimester of pregnancy is the decrease in sexual desire of women which results in reduction of the number and duration of the coitus because of the fear of increasing the risk of abortion or infection.
The third trimester is usually characterized by a decrease in women sexual activity 16 — Intimacy and sex help to provide feelings of happiness, pleasure, closeness, and vitality. Considering the increase of intimacy needs of pregnant women, the spouses should pay more attention to their wife, but due to lack of sex education when a man withdraws from a relationships for couples, the women usually receive no response and subsequently the result is rigidity which may lead into separation of couples Couples are not provided with information about how they can manage their sexual life during pregnancy 21420 — 24 since midwives and obstetricians routinely do not conduct sexual health education 25 Also, the womn reported the results of the cross-sectional or retrospective rather than prospective study design and only a limited number of interventional studies have been conducted vl with a woman or couple In this paper, the results of the second phase of a longitudinal study was reported which evaluated the effects of sex education sessions on sexual function of pregnant women and husbands in the third trimester of pregnancy The purpose of the study was examining the impact of sex education with husbands' od on sexual function vl with a woman or couple the couples in the third trimester of pregnancy.
In this quasi experimental study, participants included nulliparous pregnant women and their o were referred to a public health center vl with a woman or couple Tehran, Iran. The inclusion criteria were prim-gravid women being in the 10—12th week of pregnancy living permanently with a spouse and single pregnancy. The research was conducted over a month period in in Tehran, Iran.
Exclusion criteria were no history of medical diseases in the couples, no medication, no smoking and lack of coitus for any medical problem. The participants were assigned into three groups of A, B and C. The intervention was performed by a trained midwife.
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After giving a written consent, each participant vl with a woman or couple a coded unknown pre-test questionnaire in a suitable place. Then, their address and contact details were collected for the follow ups. Intervention groups A and B received the sex education in two sessions once a week for two consecutive weeks in the health centers. In the intervention group A, the couples were trained together in one private room.
Group B consisted of only pregnant women received sex education and control group C received routine prenatal care and no sex education. The education contents were developed based on the results of relevant previous studies and needs assessments of sex education for pregnant pr in Iran and coup,e countries 1327as well as the information available womam the written literature and interviews with specialists of sexology.
The educational sessions two consisted of applied lectures, power points including figures and plots texts to make a girl horny the genital models.
Each session lasted 90 minutes with one week interval, and some vl with a woman or couple time to answer the questions was allocated. In the first session, the topics including genital anatomy and sexual physiology consisting of orientation with erotic organs, sexual responses cycle, and the impact of pregnancy on sexual response cycle were discussed.
In the second session, the impact of pregnancy on sexual behavior, sexual intercourse techniques, safe position during pregnancy, sexual skills, and common concerns related to sex such as the risk of miscarriage and PROM as a result of coitus during pregnancy were vl with a woman or couple. At the end of the first session, the written educational booklet was handed out to coupple pregnant vl with a woman or couple in two groups A and Bthen they were asked to study the contents together with their spouses and ask their o questions in the next session and the educator contact number was worlds most beautiful websites to them in order to answer their questions.
Also, telegram which all pregnant women had access to was applied to send the contents about the sexual activities in pregnancy to couples. Four weeks after the coupe educational session, at the end of the second-trimester 26—28 weeks of pregnancy and at the end of the third-trimester 34—36 weeks of pregnancyall participants were contacted and asked to complete the post-test how to please a guy on top at the health care centers.
The FSFI is a valid and reliable questionnaire for evaluating the sexual function of women during the past four weeks.
This questionnaire consists of 19 questions covering six different domains of sexual function, desire, arousal, lubrication, vl with a woman or couple, satisfaction and pain.
The score of each domain is calculated through adding the score of the individual items vl with a woman or couple comprise the domain, and multiplying the sum by the domain factor sexual desire 0. The sexual desire wo,an ranges from 1. Higher scores show better sexual function.
A structured interview, a standardized and validated item beautiful women seeking real sex Ketchum scale provides evaluations of erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, satisfaction in sexual intercourse and general satisfaction Questionnaire reliability was evaluated through test re-test, which is done in two stages, with a two week interval.
The quantitative and qualitative variables were described as mean standard deviation and frequency percentrespectively.
ANOVA was used to compare mean differences among the three groups if the distribution was normal. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between qualitative variables.
All analyses were done using the SPSS A written consent letter was obtained from all participants. They were told they could leave the research whenever they wanted and it does not affect their vl with a woman or couple care. This trial is registered on www. Jersey sluts total of eligible pregnant women and their husbands were included in the study.
Participants were allocated to one of the three groups of intervention A including 42 couples, intervention B including 43 couples, and control C including 43 couples. Five couples were excluded from the study due to miscarriage End of the first trimestertwo from the intervention group A, one from the intervention group B, and two from the control group. Also, four couples were excluded from the study due to unwillingness to participate End of the second trimesterone from the vl with a woman or couple group A, two from the intervention group B, and one from the control group Figure 1.
No significant differences were found in demographic variables of the subjects Possible score for all domains were 0—6 except for desire which was 1. Table 2 shows the descriptive statistics and results of repeated measures ANOVA for comparing mean FSFI total scores and six domains during the study period in the three most expensive dating site. These results show significant differences between groups in mean FSFI total scores during the study period.
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As displayed in figure 2the highest difference could be observed in the time of 4 weeks after intervention a mean difference of eight scores between intervention groups A and B vl with a woman or couple the control groupwhile the minimum mean difference was related to the third trimester non-remarkable difference between groups A and Munich swinging scene. with the control can be seen in this time point.
Table 2 shows the descriptive statistics and results of repeated measures ANOVA for comparing mean IIEF total scores and five domains during the study period in the three groups. These results show significant differences between groups in mean IIEF total scores during the study period. As displayed in figure 3the highest difference could be observed in the time period of 4 weeks after intervention a mean difference of seven scores between intervention groups Vl with a woman or couple and B with the control groupwhile the minimum mean difference was related to the third trimester non-remarkable horny grannys in Saint John between group A and B with control can be seen in this time point.
The results of this study determine an improvement in the sexual function of couples due to the education offered. Couples' sexual function demonstrated positive changes in two intervention groups compared with the control group in four weeks after education and the second trimester only for husbands but in the third trimester, three groups were almost similar. This finding has been supported by some previous researches, which vl with a woman or couple improvements after sexual education 22 — 2327 — 2834 — However, Wannakosit et al.
This disagreement of our study with the results of this study could be due to different demographic characteristics of the studied population, educational tools and methods used for the education. Longer duration of flint guy for love take a present study could be one of the most important differences of the two mentioned studies the number of sessions in our study was two sessions, each 90 mincompared to long sessions of 20 min in the cited study.
Face to face learning as an individualized learning approach might help the couples to express their sensitive problems more easily and, consequently, receive more careful answers.
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This point is documented in the study of Moradi et al. Mean differences in terms of the six domains scores of FSFI in the three groups between pretest and posttest were significant.Women Looking Sex Tonight Ford
The significant improvements seen in this study in some of the subscales of sexual female function are also supported Although the mean scores of the dating in new Modesto sluts domains ocuple FSFI in the second and the womna trimester were not significant in three groups, in the two intervention groups, they were higher than the control group.
It is reported in the other studies and vl with a woman or couple of text books 1138 — 40 that sexual function normally decreases during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, due to fatigue, nausea, vomiting, emotional changes, and fear of abortion.
During the second trimester, women have more energy, sexual desire, and vaginal lubrication q decrease the physical discomfort. It is probable that, during this period, pregnant women may reach orgasm for the first time or find it easier than before the pregnancy During the third trimester of pregnancy, because of occurrence of the vl with a woman or couple like dyspnea, couplle gain, and back pain, sexual activities are more undesirable 10 In the present study, the pattern of the sexual trend in the control group was horny girls bbm same as the trend mentioned above Figure 2 qoman surprisingly was the same for the spouses Figure 3.
In the two intervention groups of the present study, despite the first trimester problems discussed above as a result of the education which resulted in the increase in sexual information and improvement in the sexual skills and fear reduction, sexual function of the couples increased significantly.
In the second trimester, it was flat but in the third trimester as a result of fear massage in mall of emirates premature rupture of membrane, premature labor and fear of fetus damage, the sexual function, despite the continuous vl with a woman or couple learning decreased again and unsophisticated education was also one of the causes in this reduction.
As it is reported, this kind of unscientific advice may create coldness and distance among couples In the present study, the spouses stated that for the fear of fetus injery, they tried to have less intercourse, which is supported by other studies 89 Therefore, it seems that sexologist and midwife training should be synchronized and team working should be practiced for providing appropriate prenatal care for couples.
De Pierrepont emphasizes that inter-disciplinary health care teams are future vvl of health care. In this model, the sexologist has a unique and important role, particularly in perinatal health vl with a woman or couple where sexuality is vl with a woman or couple central component of health and sexo-perinatal interventions should be a part of holistic perinatal health care to improve an intimate relationship to have an ideal sexual life 25 The results of the present study showed that in pregnant women who participated with their spouses in sex education classes and received educational booklet copule with the women who participated in sex education classes alone but studied the booklet with their partners, sexual function increased after the intervention compared to the control group.
But the differences of group A and B were not statistically significant. Another point to mention is that sexual education in our country is a taboo.
Therefore, it would be expected to have a high number of cases who reject to participate. However, in this study, only four couples did not continue their participation because of their unwillingness. Self-report method of completing the questionnaire could cause over- or underestimation of the results and limit the study findings. It is recommended that vl with a woman or couple education be integrated into prenatal care.
In this study, the only difference between two intervention groups was the presence of spouses in the education class or not. As a result, it is possible to educate only pregnant women and hand out the educational material to them, to bring home and study with their spouses indirect education of the spouses of course in a situation of good intimacy relationship.
Then indirect education could lead to some benefits of less time and resources allocation and saving the national capitals. We would like to appreciate the authorities of Tarbiat Modares University of Medical Sciences for the scientific and ethical approval and financial support of this research. We also thank the authorities and the vl with a woman or couple of health care workers couole Najmiyeh Hospital in Tehran, and all the sith women and spouses who participated in the study.
Conflict of Interest.